Carmeliet

Experimental wind-driven rain database

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Rain events for Geometry 1 - array of cubes
Rain events for Geometry 2 - two parallel buildings

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The rain events present the experimental wind-driven-rain databases on two different building configurations, which are parts of the papers mentioned below.

Data on this website can be used provided that the source is acknowledged. When you want to use the data, an email to Aytaç Kubilay (kubilay@arch.ethz.ch) is appreciated.

Click here for the numerical solver

Geometry 1: array of low-rise cubic buildings:
Kubilay A, Derome D, Blocken B, Carmeliet J. (2014). High-resolution field measurements of wind-driven rain on an array of low-rise cubic buildings. Building and Environment; 78:1-13. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.04.004
Abstract
Wind-driven rain (WDR) is one of the most important moisture sources with potential negative effects on the hygrothermal performance and durability of building facades. The impact of WDR on building envelopes can be understood in a better way when the WDR intensity distribution can be accurately predicted. Most field experiments of WDR reported in the literature focused on either stand-alone buildings or on buildings in geometrically complex environments. There is a need for high-resolution measurements in more generic and idealized multi-building configurations. The present study reports WDR measurements that were conducted with high spatial and temporal resolution in a test setup consisting of an array of 9 low-rise cubic building models, located in Dübendorf, Switzerland. Detailed descriptions are provided of the building models, the surroundings, the measuring instruments, the measurements of WDR, wind speed, wind direction, horizontal rainfall intensity and air temperature during three selected rain events, as well as error estimates for the WDR measurements. The datasets of rain events and WDR measurement results are made available online to download and are intended for WDR model development and validation.
Geometry 2: two parallel wide buildings:
Kubilay A, Derome D, Blocken B, Carmeliet J. (2015). Wind-driven rain on two parallel wide buildings: field measurements and CFD simulations. Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics; 146:11-28. doi:10.1016/j.jweia.2015.07.006
Abstract
Most studies of wind-driven rain (WDR) reported in the literature focus either on isolated buildings or on a particular building in geometrically complex environments. There is a need for experimental and numerical studies for more generic multi-building geometries. The present study reports detailed field measurements and numerical simulations of WDR that are conducted for an idealized geometry with two parallel wide buildings with different heights, located in Dübendorf, Switzerland. The datasets of rain events and WDR measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution are made available online to download and are intended for model development and validation. Numerical simulations are performed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on the 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and an Eulerian multiphase (EM) model for WDR, including the turbulent dispersion of raindrops. The numerical results are validated by comparing the calculated catch ratio values and cumulative WDR amounts with data from the field measurements. The CFD simulations accurately estimate the WDR intensities at the positions of 18 WDR gauges. The average discrepancies between the numerical and experimental results are found to be 6.9% for the rain event on February 20-21, 2014 and 4.9% for the rain event on August 2-3, 2014. In different building configurations, the influences of recirculation regions, sheltering, wind-blocking effect and acceleration of wind determine the WDR distribution on the downstream building. WDR can increase due to recirculation regions and acceleration of wind, while wind-blocking effect and sheltering decrease WDR.
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